This is the original paper.
Case Study – Ray
REBT therapy is psychotherapeutic based on the principle that people “do not merely get upset by unfortunate adversities, but also by how they construct their views of reality through their language, evaluative beliefs, meanings and philosophies about the world, themselves and others” (Passaro, Moon, Weist & Wong, 2004, p. 507). This is an indication that the experiences people have do not always make them sad but rather that the beliefs people hold on the situations faced are the ones making people sad. On the other hand, structural family therapists work hard to be assimilated in the family system so that they can understand all the underlying problems that may be causing the problems. They should understand the relationships held by the family members and disrupt the dysfunctional relationships in the family causing its stabilization at the end; healthier patterns (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
Using REBT, two treatment goals are changing the beliefs the family members hold as well as identifying positive beliefs that can help view all situations in positive methods. The family members are sad because they view life experiences negatively. By identifying positive beliefs that would help in viewing sad experiences differently would help people avoid getting sad. With identification of positive view, negative beliefs of the family members would eventually be avoided (Prout & Brown, 2007). Ray and his mother view the working of his dad as problematic and as an excuse not to have time for the family. However, viewing this as a way of working hard in order to provide for the family would prevent them from feeling sad. This means that the mother and his son should view the father’s working hard negatively but rather positively and this should be ensured through the help of the therapist.
The set goals in REBT approach should achieved the techniques of individualism and active reasoning. Each family member should be encouraged to fight for his or her happiness. Even after going through hard periods, one should not view those experiences negatively but rather positively. With individualism, each person works hard for her or his happiness. Active reasoning is ensured through thinking before acting. One should not rush into reacting to all situations without first reasoning and if possible consulting (Prout & Brown, 2007).
With structural family therapy, the therapist can set goals of being assimilated into the family in order to determine all the problems in the family followed by helping the dysfunctional relationships. The therapist should dig into the root causes of the problems the family is experiencing through first being incorporated into the family such that he feels like one of them. This way, he would determine all the problems faced, their causes, and be able to come up with effective solutions. The best technique in achieving this is through teamwork in which the family should act as one in all circumstances. Even though the father might be very much involved in his work, he can still create time to be with his family. Even though Ray might feel ignored, he should at least to the warnings the parents have (Gonzalez et al, 2004).
All the techniques identified are effective since the family members understand their problems in a better way. They are fighting the feeling of sadness and the problems they are facing rather than blaming each other. Each family takes himself as his own source of happiness as well as contributing to the happiness of others.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Quick reference to the DSM-IV-TR 2000: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). New York: American Psychiatric Press. ISBN:
Gonzalez, J. E. et al. (2004). “Rational Emotive Therapy With Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis” Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(4): 222-35.
Passaro, P. D., Moon, M., Weist, D. J., & Wong, E. H. (2004). “A Model for School Psychology Practice: Addressing the Needs of Students With Emotional and Behavioral Challenges Through the Use of an In-School Support Room and Reality Therapy.” Adolescence, 39(155): 503-17.
Prout, H. T., & Brown, D. T. (Eds.). (2007). Counseling and psychotherapy with children and adolescents: Theory and practice for school and clinical settings (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
This is the QUESTION TO BE ADDRESSED IN THIS PAPER.
I especially liked the comment on we make our own happiness, and we cannot be dependent on another person for happiness. What cultural factors come into play here?
You gave your peers some solid information. How does all of this specifically relate to Ray..”identify the behaviors you would attend to in the initial sessions with Ray. How would you discuss why he is there and what the expectations are for his behavior while in the sessions?”
APA 6th edition